Alternative Perspectives on Management

Management involves achieving competencies in human resources management, administration, and organizational leadership among other areas (Koontz Weihrich, 1990). In addition, organizational image and identity refer to that which is most central, distinct and most enduring about an organization. In other words, the image and identity refer to who we are as an organization (Whatten Mackey, 2002). This definition indicates the other organization and ‘we’ are one and the same thing, which cannot be separated by any means. For example, a Human resource manager is involved in recruiting, training, and creating policies to motivate and retain the workforce within an organization. In performing these functions, the HRM performs a political function by creating and allocating people to positions of power within the organization (Devanna et al, 1981), and how payments and rewards are distributed. On the other hand, the manager is functional as they have to design policies and strategies that have to ensure the recruited employees contribute to the development and improvement of the firm. The manager performs a rational activity by having well organized and structured policies that will help in achieving certain ends to the benefit of the company while at the same time rewarding employees for their input. Likewise, organization image is a political process as it uses the power of influencing perception. An organization has to improve its image so as to appear more aligned within a certain goal, which influences the public’s perception. The strategies and policies put in place to enhance and achieve this image constitute the functional process. Its rationality is in the purpose of achieving an end, which is attracting more customers and investors through an improved corporate image, while at the same time gaining the support of employees. However, the current developments in organizational study have resulted into critical theories that find the mainstream management to be poorly structured in effectively addressing all the concerns of stakeholders (Adler, Forbes, Willmott, 2007) This is because. the current management structure gives more advantage to managers. sometimes misuse these positions to benefit the organization at the cost of stakeholders. According to Contu Willmott (2003), there is an unstable institutionalization of power within the capitalist type of organizations where profit-making is the sole purpose of such organizations. On the other hand, Lukes (2005) explains organizations that have decisions emanating from the decision-makers only have one-dimensional power prevailing in decision making, instead of having an agenda control type of decision making. As Heydebrand (2007) elaborates, the new organizational critic theories argue that the basic importance of power at the very initial level of management is to prevent grievances and unnecessary conflicts through consent. It seeks to define the social reality including what people are actually thinking, acting, feeling and shaping the very definition of what is free and unfree, good and evil, or true or false (Heydebrand, 2009, Herbamas, 1990). Thus management conflict is central to important functions in the organizations such as bargaining, mediation in labor laws, other extra-legal disputes, and negotiations (Stone, 2001).